Chi Sau: Wing Chun's Dynamic 'Sticky Hands' Training…
Chi Sau (also spelled Chi Sao) is a major tool in developing killer
Wing Chun abilities. The two above are demonstrating 'blindfolded' Chi
If you want lightening speed, hair trigger reflexes, or to
'mind read' your opponent,
practice Chi Sau.
It is so central to applying and mastering the
principals of Wing Chun that its been referred as the jewel, the genius,
or the heart of this martial art.
It has also been called
Wing Chun’s laboratory, since it lets students experiment with their
techniques, discover what works for them, what doesn’t, and what to do
Chi Sau vs. Tai Chi Chuan’s 'Push Hands'…
Chi Sau is similar to Tai Chi Chuan’s 'push hands' (推手 - in Mandarin pinying it's pronounced Tui Shou) training. Both involve:
- Close range contact with a partner;
- Develop energy sensitivity;
- Train balance and timing;
- Stress technique over sheer force.
each has a different goal. Push hands trains you to feel your
opponent’s center of gravity and disrupt it, by pushing, tripping, or
Chi Sau could do that as well. But since Wing Chun is an art that unleashes explosive strikes,
its objective, especially at the more advanced levels, is to find an
opening to strike your opponent, while protecting your own openings from
Why is it Called Sticky Hands?
Chi Sau (黏手
- in Mandarin's pinying it's pronounced Nian Shou) translates as sticky
hands. Many people take the name literally and believe you must stick
to your opponent’s arms at all costs. Not entirely accurate.
want to maintain contact at the forearm right behind the wrist. This
area is called the bridge. And more important than 'sticking' is
protecting your center line from attack, and feeling when your partner's
centerline is vulnerable to your attack.
For instance, if your
partner gets tired and drops her guard very low, instead of following it
down by 'sticking' to it… you probably have an opening down the center.
Let her arm drop, break contact with her bridge, and hit her in the
What Are They Really Doing?
Through sticky hands practice, you learn effective transitions, adjustments, and control of all three sides of the bridge.
The bridge is the basis for the three families of Wing Chun hand movements.
- The tan (tan sau)n hand movements use the side of the bridge ending in the thumb;
- The bong (bong sau) movements use the side of the bridge ending in the pinky;
- The fok (fok sau) movements use the middle of the bridge.
Another point about the name: If both opponents [look at
the picture above] have good form (assuming there is no footwork in the
drill), and protecting their centerlines and the centerline between
them, technically that means both their arms/bridges are taking up the
But according to Newton or Einstein (probably both), and often repeated in Wing Chun, two objects can't occupy the same space at the same time.
So visually, the arms are rotating in a Wing Chun chess match where each opponent is trying to gain a better position.
the untrained eye this looks like the fighters are trying to stick
their arms together.
In fact, what they are doing is probing for
openings, attacking the openings, simultaneously creating an opening on
themselves with their attack, and then defending the openings from their
opponent. Back and forth this goes until something gives.
The Rewards of Chi Sau…
- Touch Sensitivity - When you have contact, your hands, arms,
and eventually the rest of you learns to read micro-movements from your
opponent. This tells you their balance, position, intentions,
flexibility, and prepares you to respond.
- Rapid-fire Contact Reflexes
- Muscle reflexes are much faster than the eye, especially at close
exchange range where your opponent is simply a blur. Chi Sau (and Chi
Gerk, similar but with the legs) develops muscle memory; neuro-muscular programming.
Instead of waiting to see a partner’s next move, you can sense it and
- Trapping - This technique lets you
use one of your hand to control both of your partner’s hands, leaving
your remaining hand free to attack. This drill is a great way to develop
and prefect trapping skills.
Some Chi Sau Training Drills…
My sifu breaks down training to make it easier to learn. Some steps are:
- Footwork or no-footwork
- Without using footwork allows you to focus on only
the arm movement. What's nice is that it also forces you to
properly use your hips and shoulders. But when you do add in footwork
the dynamic changes entirely. Initially though, you want to practice Chi Sau without footwork to become proficient in the arm moves, then you
can add in the feet.
- Predetermined or random - In our
kwoon, we have a set standard of moves for these drills. This is what we mean by
'pre-determined'. It allows you to practice the same moves over and
over again until you are comfortable (practice one move 10,000 times…). 'Random' starts out as regular Chi Sao, but evolves from there and
often turns into light sparring.
- One arm or two arm -
Most Chi Sau videos you see online demonstrate the opponents using two
arms that same time. That's the ultimate goal. But when you first
start out that can be very confusing. Training
one arm at a time, first, is helpful. Also, in our school we train cross-arm
(right arm vs. right arm, while facing each other); this can only be
done using one arm.
- Alone or with a partner - During
class we almost always do Chi Sau with a partner. But I find practicing
at home, alone, and in front of a mirror helps you better see your arms
in relation to your centerline (is it covered while you rotate, or not?)
It's a powerful way to isolate the moves and perfect them. I don't think you can get that kind of clear feedback with a
partner, because there's just too much 'data' and interference coming from your partner.
- Lastly, if you're very new, you simply stand
face to face with your opponent, in a neutral stance, no footwork, hands out to the side a
bit, and push on each other's hands. The object is to push the other
person off balance, while not losing your own.
The Wing Chun Wooden Dummy
The New and Ancient Wing Chun Weapons
Arm Breaking in Wing Chun
Return from Chi Sau to Advanced Wing Chun
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